Building the analysis model in Software Engineering

At a technical level, Software Engineering begins with building an analysis model of a target system. Software engineers perform analysis modeling and create an analysis model to provide information of 'what' software should do instead of 'how' to fulfill the requirements in software. This model emphasizes information such as the functions that software should perform, behavior it should exhibit, and constraints that are applied on the software. This model also determines the relationship of one component with other components. The clear and complete requirements specified in the analysis model help the software development team to develop the software according to those requirements. An analysis model is created to help the development team to assess the quality of the software when it is developed. An analysis model helps to define a set of requirements that can be validated when the software is developed. The analysis model specifies the software design in the form of a design model, which provides information about the software's architecture, user interface, and component level structure.

The guidelines followed while Building an analysis model are listed below :

1. The model should concentrate on requirements in the problem domain that are to be accomplished. However, it should not describe the procedure to accomplish the requirements in the system.

2. Every element of the analysis model should help in understanding the software requirements. This model should also describe the information domain, function, and behavior of the system.

3. The analysis model should be useful to all stakeholders because every stakeholder uses this model in his own manner. For example, business stakeholders use this model to validate requirements whereas software designers view this model as a basis for design.

4. The analysis model should be as simple as possible. For this, additional diagrams that depict no new or unnecessary information should be avoided.

Also, abbreviations and acronyms should be used instead of complete notations. The choice of representation is made according to the requirements to avoid inconsistencies and ambiguities. Due to this, the analysis model comprises structured analysis, object-oriented modeling, and other approaches. Each of these describes a different manner to represent the functional and behavioral information. Structured analysis expresses this information through data-flow diagrams whereas object-oriented modeling specifies the functional and behavioral information using objects. Other approaches include ER modeling and several requirements specification languages and processors.

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