Introduction To Web Technology

The "Web," short for "World Wide Web" which gives us the acronym www, is the name for one of the ways that the internet lets people browse documents connected by hypertext links. The principle of the Web is based on using hyperlinks to navigate between documents (called web pages) with a program called a browser. A web page is a simple text file written in a markup language (called HTML) that encodes the layout of the document, graphical elements, and links to other documents, all with the help of tags.

The World Wide Web began as a universal graphic display framework for the Internet. Since its inception, the Web has come to dominate public perceptions of the Internet, and it has revolutionized the way we think about application interfaces. The view of the web page you see through the window of your web browser is the result of a conversation between the browser and a web server computer. The language used for that conversation is called Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The data delivered from the server to the client is a finely crafted jumble of text, images, addresses, and formatting codes rendered to a unified document through a versatile formatting language called Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). The basic elements of what we know today as the World Wide Web were created by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 at the CERN( European Organization for Nuclear Research) research institute in Geneva, Switzerland. Berners-Lee created a subtle and powerful information system by bringing together three technologies that were already in development at the time:

Markup language : A system of instructions and formatting codes embedded in text. Markup languages are the languages in which the web is written. The most common markup language used is HTML, which uses tags to annotate text so that a computer can then manipulate the text. Most markup languages are human readable, and use annotations that are distinguishable from the annotated text.

Hypertext : Hypertext is defined as the arrangement of information inside a database that allows the user to receive information and to navigate from one document to another by clicking on highlighted words or pictures inside the primary document. Hypertext is the base of the World Wide Web, because it enables user to click on other links to get more information. Hypertext is a term used for all links, whether is appears as texts or other graphical part.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) : HTML is the conventional markup language used to create and edit web pages and web applications. HTML is used for creating the basic structure of a website. HTML consists of different elements preceded by an opening tag, <tag>, and a closing tag, </tag>. The content between the tags, <html> and </html>, is the content of the webpage. The content between the tags, <head> and </head>, is the title of the webpage. This text is displayed between the <title> and </title> tags. The content between the tags, <body> and </body>, is the main content of the webpage. The content can include links , paragraphs, headings, and various other elements.

The Internet: A global computer network of clients requesting services and servers providing services through TCP/IP.

Web consists of billions of clients and server connected through wires and wireless networks. The web clients make requests to web server. The web server receives the request, finds the resources and return the response to the client. When a server answers a request, it usually sends some type of content to the client. The client uses web browser to send request to the server. The server often sends response to the browser with a set of instructions written in HTML(HyperText Markup Language). All browsers know how to display HTML page to the client.

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